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Hospitality

Добавлено: 11.08.19
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Рубрика: Статьи
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Nemys Adyghe, Adyghe habze establish well-defined norms of behavior as relatively owners, all members of the family and the guest. From the appearance of the guest in the yard of the owner at the hitchhiker to his wires, everything was painted in detail: how to welcome the guest, how to invite him to the house, in kunatskaya, how to take him to the room and put, what place to offer him at the table, on what topics to talk when the guest, what questions are allowed to ask him how to occupy (entertain, entertain) after the feast, how to spend the night, who and how to court his clothes, his horse (bulls), etc.

All this was focused on the fact that the guest was comfortable/nice and interesting in the home. At the same time, the person was zealous not to Express himself, but to Express the best traditional qualities of the people through his act. Because in violation or not quite the performance of the customs of their ancestors, public opinion was merciless. Disgrace to yourself, family, members of the family were considered to refuse a guest admission, or not be able to defend his honor. This Adyg compromised his entire clan and even the whole village. The family, unable to fulfill its duty of hospitality, was ridiculed, condemned and ignored by neighbors, acquaintances, and was not recommended to enter into kinship with her. The idea that say about her visitors return to himself, had been sent to the owner. Day and night he was busy with the guest, trying to be with him inseparably, only left him for a short time to find out whether the horses are fed visitors. Everything was done out of the conviction that he fulfilled the Covenant of the fathers and the duty of hospitality. And at the same time, an important role was played by the fact, generally accepted among the people, that the respect of the owner of the family and the family itself depended on how often it was visited by guests.

Hospitality – a social custom, to varying degrees characteristic of all peoples. That custom was perceived by Adygs as one of the greatest human virtues that all foreign scientists who ever visited the country of Adygs noted. In particular, already known to the reader Giorgio Interiano in the XV century noted that the Adygs "in the custom of "hospitality and with the greatest cordiality to accept everyone." Giovanni Lucca in the XVII century wrote about the Adyghe that "there is no people in the world kinder or kinder receiving foreigners." "Hospitality,– said K. F. two centuries later. Steel is one of the most important virtues of Circassians...""The memory of the former hospitality is preserved in the legends... Despite all the disasters and political upheavals, this virtue has not weakened to this day," wrote sh. Nogmov in the first half of the XIX century. However, it was so for the time being. Hospitality, as well as all other components of traditional household culture of Adygs with changes of social and economic conditions of life of the people was transformed gradually, adapting to new conditions. But more on that later. In the meantime, let us continue our story about the hospitality of the Adygs, who in the past drew the good attention of scientists and writers.

Gardanov V. K. writes: "the Right of a completely unfamiliar person to stay as a guest in any house and the unconditional duty of the owner to give him the most cordial welcome and present everything necessary – that's what first of all characterized the custom of hospitality in the Adygs."

"In Cherkessia, – said Khan Giray, – the traveler, tormented by hunger, thirst and fatigue, everywhere finds a hospitable shelter: the owner of the house, where he stopped, greets him cordially and, not being with him at all familiar, makes every effort to calm him down, without even asking who he is, where and why he is going, delivers him everything he needs."

"Hospitality was developed between Circassians to the widest extent and was one of the most important virtues of this people, – Dubrovin wrote. – The guest was a sacred person for the host, who undertook to treat him, to protect him from insults and was ready to sacrifice his life for him, even if he was a criminal or his blood enemy." And then: "..Each traveling Circassian stayed where he was caught in the night, but preferred to stay with a friend, and besides, a person is enough that would not be too burdensome to treat a visitor.

...The owner, hearing from a distance about the guest's arrival, hurried to meet him, and held the stirrup when he dismounted from his horse. In the eyes of each Circassian there were no such acts and services that could humiliate the host in front of the guest, no matter how great the difference in their social status. As soon as the guest dismounted from his horse, the owner first of all took off his gun and introduced it to kunatskaya, indicating there a place, covered with carpets and pillows, in the most honorable corner of the room. It was filmed with the visitor all the rest of the weapons that they were hung up in the guest-chamber, or were treated in the house of the owner. The latter circumstance had a twofold meaning among the Circassians: either that the host took, in friendship, full responsibility for the safety of the guest in his house, or that, not knowing him, he did not trust him very much.

...Sitting in a place of honor, the visitor, as usual with Circassians, spent some time in deep silence. The host and guest, if they were strangers, looked at each other with great attention. After a few moments of silence, the visitor inquired about the health of the owner, but considered it indecent to ask about his wife and children. On the other hand, Circassians considered it a violation of the rules of hospitality to shower the guest with questions: where he came from, where and why he was going, the guest, if he wanted, could keep complete incognito. The owner asked him about his health only if the visitor was familiar to him, otherwise he did not do this question before the guest announced his name. In a period of time before dinner – it was considered impolite to leave a guest alone, and it was one by one the neighbors of the owner with greetings. The beginning of all things were from a guest. He began the conversation and asked those present to sit down, they at first refused, considering it indecent to sit in the presence of the guest, but then the older ones gave in to the secondary request and sat down, and the younger ones were placed standing around the room. During the conversation, according to custom, the guest addressed only to respectable persons or elders, and little by little the conversation became common. The public interests of the country, internal incidents, information about peace or war, the exploits of some Prince, the arrival of ships to the Circassian shores and other items that deserve attention, were the content of the conversation and were the only source from which all Circassian news and information were drawn.



In conversation respected the subtle fashion, giving the Circassians in dealing with each other is a kind of nobility or decency. The appearance of the servants, or the master's sons, or his neighbors with a washbasin and basin to wash their hands, was a sign that dinner was ready. After the washing has been brought in kumakskoe small tables on three legs. These tables are known in Circassians called ane (Iene).

The Circassians were always extremely temperate in food, eating little, and rarely, especially during campaigns and movements. "The sorrows of the stomach, – says the proverb,– are easily forgotten, and not soon – only the torments of the heart." The food was served clean and neat. Circassian milk was eaten with wooden spoons, beef broth or broth was drunk from wooden cups, and everything else was eaten with hands. The sheep, which had been cut for the guest, was cooked whole in a cauldron, except for the head, legs and liver, and, surrounded by these utensils, seasoned with brine, was served on one of the tables. The next course consisted also of boiled mutton, cut into pieces, between which there was a stone Cup with a spike – sour milk, seasoned with garlic, pepper, salt; in this brine the natives dipped mutton. Then order and dignity should celebii the chicken with the seasoning, onions, pepper, butter, put on the table pasta... For celibre – again sour milk, with chunks of boiled lamb heads, cheesecake, pies, cheese, pilaf, shish kebab, roast lamb with honey, scatter millet with sour cream, sweet cakes. At the end of the dinner they brought a cauldron with a very tasty soup, which was poured into wooden cups with ears and served to the guests. Wine, beer, booze, or Arak, and finally the Mare was the affiliation of each lunch. The number of dishes, depending on the value of the guest and the state of the host, sometimes very much. So, in 1827, Natukhai Sergeant Destaco-Demirok, treating, visiting his English seraskier Hassan-Pasha, gave him at dinner a hundred and twenty dishes. For dinner sat in the dignity and value; summer played an extremely important role. Summers in the hostel of Circassians were always put above any rank; the young man of the highest origin was obliged to stand before each old man, without asking his name and showing respect to his gray hair, to give him a place of honor, which in the reception of Circassians was very important.

When the elder stopped eating, everyone sitting at the same table with him also stopped eating, and the table was passed to secondary visitors, and from them passed on until it was completely empty, because Circassian did not save the next day what was once cooked and served. What not to eat guests, handed down from kumakskoe and was heard in the courtyard the crowd of children and onlookers, converging at each meal. After dinner, the washbasin was swept and brought again, and this time a small piece of soap was served on a special saucer. Wishing the guest peace, all were removed, except the host, who remained here until the guest asked him to calm down as well.


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